Keithley Instruments, Inc has published an electronic handbook titled “Making Precision Low Voltage and Low Resistance Measurements”. The handbook, which offers instant online access to a wide range of Keithley application notes, white papers, webinars, and many other references, was developed to help readers solve today’s toughest low level measurement challenges. It can be downloaded at no charge from the url below.

A number of topics related to low voltage measurements are addressed in the handbook:


  • Offset voltages

  • Noise

  • Common-mode current and reversal errors

  • Low resistance measurement topics covered include:

  • Lead resistance and the four-wire method

  • Thermoelectric EMFs and offset compensation methods

  • Non-ohmic contacts

  • Device heating

  • Dry circuit testing

  • Testing inductive devices


Tips and techniques for ensuring the accuracy of instruments such as voltmeters, ohmmeters, and current sources are included. The handbook also outlines specific low voltage (Hall effect) and low resistance (superconductor resistance) applications and provides a convenient selector guide and low level measurements glossary.